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Prevalenceof malaria and anaemiaamong pregnant women attending Antenatal Care Clinic in the Hohoe Municipality of Ghana

Margaret Kweku, Michael Ofori, Wisdom Takramah, Wisdom Kudzo Axame, Richard Owusu, Phyllis Parbey, Martin Adjuik, Elvis Tarkang

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Background:Malaria infection during pregnancy is a major public health problem in the tropical and sub-tropical regions.This study determined the prevalence and factors associated withmalariaand anaemiaamong pregnant women. Methods:A cross-sectional hospital-based study carried out from January to December 2016at the Hohoe Municipal Hospital. Pregnant women of all gravidities with gestational agebetween16-37weeks,attendingfocused antenatal care (Focused-ANC) were interviewed using asemi-structured questionnaire to obtainsocio-demographic, obstetric and medical history data.Blood samples were examined for Haemoglobinlevels and malaria parasitaemia.Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to determine the association between dependent and independent variables.Linear regression was used to determine the association between the risk factors of the covariates and the log parasite density.A P-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Results:Of 1200 women,malariaparasitaemia was present in 244 (20.3%), anaemia(Hb<11.0 g ⁄dl) in724 (60.3%).Ownership and usage of long-lasting insecticide treatednet(LLIN) were95.3% and 86.5% respectively. Women who were anaemic and those who visited focused-ANC 5-8 times were 1.70 and 2.08 times more likely to have malaria, (AOR=1.70, p<0.001)and (AOR=2.06, p=0.039) respectively. Women in their 3rd trimester were 41% times less likely to have malaria (AOR=0.59, p=0.033).Women aged between 30-39 years and those who took ≥ 3 doses of Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-IPTp)were 42% and 54% times less likely to have anaemia[AOR=0.58; p=0.040] and[AOR=0.46; p=0.010] respectively.Women in their2ndtrimester were 1.39 times more likely to have anaemia [AOR=1.39; p=0.043]. Parasite density decreased with increasing age (r=-0.041, p=0.033).Conclusion:One out of every 5 pregnant women had malaria and 6 out of every 10 pregnant women had anaemia. Administration of ≥ 3 doses of SP-IPTp reduces anaemia. The presence of malaria results in anaemia and makes pregnant women increase the number of Focused-ANC visits. Age is arisk factor for parasite density. With the high prevalence, targeted interventions for younger women and women in their 2nd trimesterare needed to reduce anaemiain pregnancy within Hohoe Municipality of Ghana.

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