Out-break, Distribution and Management of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith in Africa: The Status and Prospects
A review was made to highlight various research works done so far regarding to the introduction, distribution and managements of fall army worm in Africa. It has been reported that the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is an economically important pest native to tropical and subtropical America has recently invaded Africa there by causing substantial damage to maize and other crops. Accordingly, signals increased negative impacts on agricultural production and food security on the continent. Reports also suggested that this pest has already moved to at least 30 African countries. It was first detected in Central and Western Africa in early 2016 (Sao Tome and Principe, Nigeria, Benin and Togo) and from there proceeded further. Currently, in Africa the pest is causing huge damage to maize crop and has been estimated to 25-67% for maize in many countries. African continent provides favorable climatic conditions for a constant reproduction of the pest, which is expected to result in severe damage to high priority crops. Various control methods, including cultural, chemical and mechanical have been adopted and practiced by farmers in many African countries. Large-scale eradication efforts are neither appropriate nor feasible. Thus, in near future gathering and analyzing experiences and best practices from other countries where the pest is native will help to design and test a sustainable fall armyworm management program for smallholders in Africa. Furthermore, in order to reduce negative impacts associated with inappropriate usage of insecticide, emphasize should be given to develop or adopt the management practices which is environmentally safe.
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