The study investigated into the effect of grazing on the riparian vegetation along river Benue in Adamawa state Nigeria. Survey and observation design method were used to compare vegetation cover, distribution and composition. Study area was categorized into upper and lower section of riparian and was stratified into grazed and nongrazed. The study sites were delineated into fifty-nine (59) quadrats, observation technique was used to collect data on grazing effects on vegetation composition. Descriptive statistics, components analysis and paired T-test were used to analyze data. Study revealed, decrease in plant species productivity, plant vigor/resilience, diversity in native palatable species and increase in plant species extinction, diversity of on non-palatable native species as effects of grazing on vegetation. There is a variation in the distribution, composition diversity of plan species amidst grazed and nongrazed sites at p = 0.05 of the paired T-test result. Decline in plant growth 0.759 and decrease in plant species diversity 0.748 are some of the loaded variable for the enormous change in vegetation structure due to grazing. Themeda triandra and Cynodon dactylon are the most affected plants sensitive to grazing effects, while Aristida mutabilis and imperata cylindra are the friendliest to grazing due to their unpalatable nature. Grazing effects amidst the upper and lower riparian sections is almost some with the effect severe on plant growth in all the sections with 22 percent. Study recommends that; as a matter of policy, governments at and federal level, traditional and community leaders should adopt modern grazing strategies or measure. Should empower and encourage the community base organizations, traditional authorities to participate at the grass root development and implementation of environmental law or policies. Community leaders and government should support a culture of understanding, that will promote ranching science curriculum to educate the adult learners skills of constructing a grazing management disposition.
The study investigated into the spatial and socio economic consequences of grazing in the riparian on the livelihood of the community along river Benue in Adamawa state Nigeria. Survey design was used and involved 232 respondents selected randomly from the communities along the riparian areas. Data were collected using the researcher made questionnaire, descriptive statistics and Pearsonâ€™s correlation were used to analyze data. The findings revealed a strong negative relationship at (r = 0.852, p < 0.05), conclusively indicate negative implication on the sustainability of socio-economic activities among communities along river Benue. The study revealed economic effects of grazing as; decrease in habitat and fish productivity, decrease in wild foods and medicinal plants, cultural and recreational potentials among others. Social effects include deteriorating quality of sanitation, poor quality of life and increase in communicable diseases among others. Study further revealed variation in the socio-economic effects of grazing on the livelihoods amidst community in the upper and lower section of the riparian Findings revealed that communities along the lower section of the riparian has more severe weight of both social and economic effects compare to the upper section of the riparian. Study recommends Federal, State government agencies in alliance with traditional authorities and community base organizations; should use research institutions, and universities to push for research projects to educate the society towards having a healthy riparian. Enhance strategies and application of national ranch grazing system which will help in the rehabilitation of the upland vegetation, safeguarding the riparian for a better ecological services
studies were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to investigate the growth and yield response of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) application of three organic materials, poultry droppings, moringa leaves, and compost-plus in Makurdi, Southern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. The manure treatments were applied at four levels, 0, 6, 12, and 18t ha-1, replicated three times and laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design. Data collected include plant height (cm), and number of leaves at 2, 4, 6, and 8, and 10 weeks after transplanting (WAT). Above ground biomass dry matter yield and total fruit yield per treatment unit were also collected. The data was analyzed using analysis of variance, whereby means significant in the F-test were separated by F-LSD (at P < 0.05). The results showed that all the manure materials significantly increased the yield parameters, above the control values. There was significant response in terms of plant height and number of leaves at 12 and 18t ha-1 when poultry droppings and moringa leaves were applied, moringa at 12t ha-1 gave the highest drymatter and fruit yield. Compost-plus least influenced growth and yield of the tomato plants (P < 0.05). Poultry droppings and Moringa leaves were found capable of improving soil fertility and hence the growth and yield of tomatoes.