The study was conducted to determine the quality characteristics of fresh and post-thaw semen of Holstein Friesian bull. The cow bulls were maintained at Semen Production Unit, Quetta Baluchistan. The semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, pH, mass activity, sperm concentration, sperm motility and sperm cell membrane integrity. The semen qualifying these criteria were processed for freezing. The frozen semen after thawing was assessed for progressive linear motility and percentage of intact cell membrane. The mean ejaculate volume of collected semen was recorded as 6.93, 6.59 and 6.61 ml, pH; 6.58, 6.59 and 6.61, mass activity of sperms 3.87, 3.75 and 3.5 and sperm concentration 1349.12x106, 1509.37x106 and 1364.37x106 /ml during the month of May, June and July respectively. The color of semen was not consistent pattern, it varied as creamy white and milky white. The motility of fresh and post thaw semen was assessed as 73.9 vs 48.75%; 75 vs. 53.75%; 75 vs. 53.12% for the month of May, June and July respectively. The membrane integrity of the fresh semen samples over a period of three month was 58.37% against post-thaw membrane integrity of 44.79%. It was concluded that the objective method of Osmotic Resistance Test was found to be useful parameter for assessment of in-vitro quality of the semen. The semen of Holstein Friesian bull tolerates freezing and thawing stress and maintained reasonable good fertility. The summer season has no significant adverse effect on quality of semen and thus the semen collected could be considered for artificial insemination program.
Aims: This study assessed the effect agricultural marketing extension on control of post-harvest losses of root and tuber crop produce in Abia State.
Study design: This study employed public opinion survey.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Abia State, Nigeria between March 2017 and January 2018.
Methodology: Using the multistage sampling technique and a structured questionnaire as instrument, data were collected from a sample of three hundred and eighty (380) respondents in the study area. Percentages, mean scores, and regression analysis were used as statistical tools for data analysis.
Results: The overall mean score of the farmers on the effects of marketing extension services on the control of postharvest losses of root and tuber crop produce was 2.858. Marketing extension services had significant effect on the volume of postharvest losses of root and tuber crop produce in the study area given that the F- statistics of 102.569 is significant at 1% level of significance and that computed F- value was higher than the F-tabulated value of (1.94) at 5% level of significance and (2.51) at 1% level of significance
Conclusion: Therefore organizations and agencies providing marketing extension services (ADPs, Research institutes, Universities, NGOs etc) should do so in accordance to famers’ needs.