Local Authorities need to adopt cost reduction, cost cutting and cost containment strategies if they are to survive the current harsh economic environment. There exist common cost reduction, cost cutting and cost containment methods like reducing staff, reducing purchases, delaying salary increments but this is not enough. Local authorities need to come up with sustainable cost reduction, cost cutting and cost containment strategies. This can only be achieved if considerable investment in time and the human mind is provided for this task. Local authorities need to plan for cost reduction, cost cutting and cost containment approaches if they are to survive the current wave of economic challenges. This paper will demonstrate sustainable cost cutting measures.
The 2015 general election in Nigeria took place in an atmosphere of fear and of possible mixed outcomes. However, fears that Elections would be marred by serious violence were allayed to a large extent, some instances of technical hitches, vote buying and other forms of electoral malpractices were recorded in some parts of the country.Â These electoral hitches were not sufficient to alter the outcomes of the elections. For the first time in Nigeriaâ€™s political history, an incumbent president lost power in a general election. The issue is whether this can lead to democratic consolidation in Nigeriaâ€™s democracy.Â The concern of this paper is to examine the nature of the 2015 elections and the possibility of democratic consolidation relying on both qualitative and quantitative methods of research. The paper concludes that much has to be done if Nigeriaâ€™s democracy is to attain the so much desired democratic consolidation.
Tourism is always embracing economy, social and environmental impacts. For this reason, the policy of sustainable development of tourism, The general approach is that governments have paid attention to tourism ecologically in the long run is approved and financially self-sufficient, and from the perspective of social and moral for local communities is beneficial and promising. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of wetland ecosystem conservation and environmental sustainability of tourism in rural areas. The purpose of applied research and in terms of data collection is descriptive and analytical. The study population consists of 3 villages khawmirabad rural district, Sarkol Zarivar which in the whole 93 villages of this area, a number of villages were selected. Sample households of the village and randomly classified and 12 villages were selected. Cochran formula used to determine the sample size and questionnaire to 330 randomly selected villages were selected among heads of households. The validity of the test Cronbach's alpha was 0.77 percent. For statistical analysis of data from one sample -t- test, chi-square test and ANOVA test in spss software is used. The results show that tourism in economic and socio-cultural aspects have a positive impact on the wetland ecosystem conservation and sustainable rural environment. But after environmental ecological positive impact not only have negative effects on the environment is stable and wetland ecosystems.