The main objective of this paper is to investigate the personal factors impeding women teachers from acession to leadership positions in mixed secondary schools in Tharaka South Sub-County. Towards this, the study employed cross sectional survey design utilizing both qualitative and quantitative methods. Data was collected fromÂ school principals, women teachers, heads of departments, Boards ofÂ Management members, Parents Teachersâ€™ Association members, Education trade unionists and religious leaders.Â Sampling was done through purposive and simple random techniques. Questionnaires, interview guide and focus group discussion guides were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. 22) as well as NVIVO (V.8) for quantitative and qualitative data analysis respectively.Â From the study, cultural factors impeding women accession to leadership of mixed public secondary schools included cultural biases, stereotyping, scrutiny, domestic responsibilities of women, culture of harassment and masculine mystique.
It is mandated in the Constitution of Pakistan to enhance adult literacy and quality education at primary level through provide free and compulsory education to all children between the ages of 5-16 years. The year 2015 was the deadline for the participants of Dakar declaration (Education for All [EFA] commitment) including Pakistan but they fail to do so. Education related statistics coupled with Pakistanâ€™s progress regarding education targets set in Vision 2030 and Pakistanâ€™s lagging behind in achieving EFA targets and its Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) for education call for an analysis of the education system of Pakistan and to look into the issues and problems it is facing so that workable solutions could be recommended. This study finds that Pakistan school system in seems as lowest in the globe. Many reasons involve in this state of affairs.i.e the quality of learning and competency level of both students and teachers in Pakistan is among the poorest in the region. One of the reasons is educational qualification is not enough to become a primary school teacher. Another is inadequate training certification program for teachers. Because teacher is key part of learning progression in education sector which faces many problems owing to which they cannot play their roles efficiently in the education process. Same the problems faced by female primary school teachers in Azad Jammu and Kashmir) AJK â€œPakistan Administered Kashmirâ€. Methodology of the study followed the procedure of descriptive research, in which existing status of female teachers in AJK was thoroughly analyzed. The problems of female school teachers were identified using the tools such as a questionnaire, and an interview schedule. Conclusion of this study presents that most of teachers affected due to their appointments, transfers, place of posting and individual promotions, rapid rate of bribery, political affiliations and interference relatively high than the merit. In many cases female teachers appointed in far flung areas where transportation is very pitiable. In addition that female teachers are overburdened with extra classes due to lack of teaching staff in primary schools, especially on one side female teachers face huge shortage of teaching and learning resources in schools and on the other hand there are smaller amount proficient development opportunities for all teachers especially for female teachers. These few mentioned factors have very much affected the procedure of schooling and education quality. The study recommends this problem could be resolved by considering some basic measures e.g. system of accountability, schooling environment and education assets, providing ongoing talented advancement opportunities and incentives, making transparent appointments system and on merit promotions procedure, provide enough teaching and non teaching staff to female primary schools and control political interference and involvement.