Background: clinical supervision is a useful strategy to foster the professional development of nurses, develop advanced independent practitioners, provide support for staff nurses and improve the quality of patients care. (Gonge and Buus, 2011).Aim:The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of clinical supervision training program for nurse managers on quality of nursing care in intensive care units.Design:A quasi â€“ experimentaldesign was utilized in this study.Setting:The current study was conducted in eight selected intensive care units at New Kasr El AiniTeaching Hospital .Subjects:Study sample composed of two groups as follows: first group isall nurse managers who were working at the previous selected intensive care units at New Kasr El Aini Teaching Hospital ,their number was (30). The second group is: stratified random percent of sample from staff nurses population which constitute (78) out of 187 staff nurses.Tools: Data was collected by using the following three tools:clinical supervision knowledge questionnaire, observational checklist for the clinical supervision competencies and quality of nursing care checklist. Results: there was a statistical significant correlation between nurse managerâ€™s clinical supervision competencies and quality of patient care among staffnurses immediately post program and 3 months post program.A statistical significant correlation between knowledge and competencies scores of head nurses 3 months post program.Conclusion: There was a positive effect of a clinical supervision training program on quality of nursing care among staff nurses. Recommendations: Provide nurse managers with adequate support and needed resources that facilitate implementation of clinical supervision as well as motivate them to implement the new educational strategies of clinical supervision that improve quality of patient care .Replication of current study in other departments and hospitals to get the clinical supervision benefits and effectiveness for nurse managers, staff nurses and patients.
On the background of a vast, ever-increasing literature on family planning, birth control, andÂ contraception, the paper aims to provide accurate and reliable information onÂ the scientific basis of such research.Â The methodological concept of the paper consists in a discussion ofÂ knowledge in the areas of chemistry and biochemistry and its relevance for the advancement of insights into the mechanism of action ofÂ substances pivotal in hormonal and non-hormonal contraception.Â The studyÂ concludes that present-dayÂ publications on contraception contain incomplete, inaccurate and misleading information.Â As a consequence, it emphasizes the need for increased cooperation among experts in medicine, chemistry, and biology. Such cooperation willÂ facilitate theÂ exploration presently unknown adverse events andÂ long-term effects.Â In addition it aims at clarifying theÂ hitherto neglectedÂ topic of safety of contraceptive drugs and devices.