APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CANCER TREATMENT

S. R. Qureshi* Y. P. Sahni, S. K. Singh, M.A. Bhat, A.A. Dar, S.A. Quadri

Abstract


Neoplasms are defined as a new formation of cell clusters, which have lost their ability to control cell division. Neoplasms can either be benign or malignant. Muta-tions in certain genes, called oncogenes, can result in dysregulation of the cell cycle, resistance to apoptosis, and in the development of cancer. A large number of today’s most effective cancer treatments are cytotoxic agents that target the cell cycle. Cancer nanotechnology which is an interdisciplinary research, cutting across the disciplines of biology, chemistry, engineering, physics & medicine is superior to surgery, radia-tion treatments, chemotherapeutic agents, photodynamic therapy, hormonal treat-ments and angiogenesis. Inhibitors nanoparticles such as semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), Ion oxide nanocrystals, Carbon nanotubes are used in cancer nanotech-nology. Nanodevices are small enough to enter cells and can improve cancer detec-tion & diagnosis, cancer treatment, sensitivity, can also preserve patients samples. They can make cancer tests faster & more efficient, they act as a link between detec-tion, diagnosis and treatment. Nanowires are Metallic, semiconductor or polymer composite, functionalized by ligands such as antibodies and oligonucleotides. Nano-particles bind to the cancer cell, defining the anatomical contour of the lesion and making it visible. Allowing for effective and targeted drug delivery by overcoming the many biological biophysical and biomedical barriers. Nanoparticles rely on “Velcro effect” to the tumor cells. Gold nanoparticles and DNA can detect prostate specific antigen (PSA) when present at extremely low levels in a blood sample. Early can-cer detection is possible by carbon nanotubes. Molecular Cancer Imaging (QDs) have high molar extinction coefficient, Conjugation with copolymer improves biocompati-bility, selectivity and decrease cellular toxicity. Liposome’s have the ability to protect the drugs from degradation, targeting the drug to the site of action through multi-lamellar vesicles(MLV), large uni-lamellar vesicles(LUV), small uni-lamellar ve-sicles(SUV), Conventional liposomes(CL), pH-sensitive liposome’s, cationic liposomes, immunoliposomes, and long-circulating liposomes(LCL). Most promising methods of drug delivery in cancer will be those that combine diagnostics with treatment. Perso-nalized management of cancer and provide an integrated protocol for diagnosis in treatment. Identifying the mechanism and location of action for the vector and de-termining the general applicability of the vector to treat all stages of tumors in prec-linical models.

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