This article explores, from a sustainable development perspective, the vision and priority areas which have been focused on in all the major educational policy documents of Pakistan from1947 to 2017. Firstly, the study presents some results from a literature review of the links between education and development. We analyse different Pakistan national education policy documents from 1947 to 2017, and discuss thepost-2009 scenarios (after the 2010, 18th Constitutional Amendment[i], education became the responsibility of provinces). Secondly, the study focuses on the results of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005–14) in Pakistan. If education for sustainable development means allowing every human being to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values necessary to shape their own sustainable future, it also means including key sustainable development issues (climate change, energy, food security, biodiversity, peace, tolerance, etc.) into the teaching and learning methods to change behaviours. Education for Sustainable Development could be a key driver for Higher education.
[i]18th Constitutional amendment bill passed by National Assembly in April 2010
The translation of nuo culture, in its nature, is one of intercultural translation. At present, the main problems of the translation of nuo culture in China are the deficiency in cultural connotation reproduction and the inappropriateness in the translation of culture-specific terms. Based on the analysis and comparison of the translated texts of exorcising culture in Jiangxi province, this paper points out that the key to the successful translation of nuo culture is to accurately reproduce the connotation of nuo and to fully consider the reading psychology of target language readers. Therefore, translators should strive to find the balance between reflecting the original text’s differences to promote native culture and satisfying the reading habits and needs of the target readers to expand its acceptance among target readers.