Diabetes mellitus is considered as an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress has been implicated as the underlying cause of both macrovascular and microvascular complications associated with type2 diabetes mellitus. Studies have reported that endothelial dysfunction occurs in patients with diabetes much earlier than clinical manifestations of diabetic vascular complications. Endothelial dysfunction is mainly due to accelerated nitric oxide (NO) degradation by reactive oxygen species. Therefore, therapies aimed at reducing oxidative stress may benefit patients with type2 diabetes mellitus and those at risk for developing diabetes.
Back Ground and Objective: Bronchiectasis is one of the most common diseases in the rural and industrial areas of India. The most accepted treatment protocol preferred for Bronchiectasis now days includes oral, aerosolized or intravenous antibiotic therapy according to the severity of the exacerbation and mucus clearance by means of bronchial hygiene assistive devices, surgical resection, chest physiotherapy like breathing exercises, postural drainage, high-frequency chest compression, forced expiratory techniques etc. Active cycle of breathing techniques (ACBT) is also the standard airway clearance technique used in patients with bronchiectasis. So this study is intended to know and compare the effectiveness of ACBT and Postural drainage techniques as a means of treatments in patients with bronchiectasis. Methodogy: It was a Randomized experimental study with 30 subjects who satisfied the inclusion criteria with a mean age group of 44 were selected for the study. All the subjects were explained about the procedures and need of the study. 15 subjects were randomly assigned under Postural Drainage group and 15 were randomly assigned under ACBT group. Pre and Post evaluation were done with FVC, FEV1, PEFR and SPO2 by using Pulmonary Function Test and Pulse Oxymetry. Results: Pairedâ€˜tâ€™ test was performed for the analysis of data. Very high significant result was shown in efficacy of ACBT and Postural Drainage in improving FVC, FEV1, PEFR and SPO2. ACBT found to have very high significance in the efficacy compared to postural drainage with P< 0.05 in the management of patients with Bronchiectais. Conclusion: Even though both Postural drainage and ACBT have significant effect in clearing airways and thereby improving pulmonary function in bronchiectasis, Active cycle of breathing technique has a better effect in clearing the airways than postural drainage and thereby improving pulmonary function in patients with bronchiectasis.
The present cross sectional study was designed to determine the gestational age by fetal Head Circumference measurement with its 2 standard deviations in North Indian population. 200 consecutive, healthy gravid patients with optimal menstrual histories were included in a prospective study from Delhi & nearby regions. The Head Circumference of fetus along with other parameters were measured from 12 to 40 weeks gestation and presented in tabulated form. The use of this table is recommended in clinical practice, to accurately determine mean fetal head circumference at each gestational age in India. This is expected to give more accurate gestational age estimation than the western tables prepared on Caucasian population, which are still followed in our country.