Logistics clusters in the US provide economic benefit, but expansion has not produced proportionate sector job growth. We hypothesize a network effect not accounted for in traditional analysis. Total Requirements matrix data for the 15 major US industry clusters provides a model of an economic social network. Using egonets from social network analysis, we propose network measures of value creation and leverage, a form of productivity, for each sector. We identify specific connected sectors where jobs and value are created. A quadrant assessment of our two measures classifies industry sectors as to amount of influence. Transportation and Wholesaling sectors create high leverage in the industries they touch, using relatively low creation of their own value added (margins on product). For development policy decisions, assessments of a sectorâ€™s impacts must include evaluating job creation in the proper networked sectors.
This study examined the impact of specific firm, product, industry, and export market characteristics, as well as export marketing strategy (product adaptation, price competitiveness, promotion adaptation and support to foreign distributor) on the export performance On Export Performance of Selected Export Companies in Ethiopia. Data were gathered from 100 marketing strategists via a structured surveyfrom firms engaged in exporting four product categories (coffee, livestock products (leather, live animals and meat), oil seeds and pulses) which has been operating since 1986. The results indicatedthat the four explanatoryvariables have a direct positive and significant effect on overall export performance. Export strategy (product adaptation, price competitiveness and promotion adaptation) also played a significant mediating role on export performance. However, support for distributers strategy has played a positiveand an insignificant role in explaining the export performance. Overall the study finding implied that marketing-mix strategyhas a mediating effect on the relationship. The findings can be generalized only for those sectors studied and provide export managers withuseful insights.
Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) play a dominant role in Indian economy by contributing to rise in national income, creating employment opportunities, nurturing the talent among the young entrepreneurs, making available supply of mass consumption goods etc. However, the sector faces severe problems and the most important of them is the inadequate access to finance. Even though the priority of the policy makers and practitioners has been to step up the access and availability and credit to micro and small and enterprise sector, one reason or other, the sector continues to suffer.
Reserve Bank of India, in collaboration with ministry of micro, small and medium enterprises has been quite positive in introducing various measures so that the credit off take to the sector improves. The recent innovation in this regard is introduction and implementation of MUDRA Scheme (Micro Units Development and Rehabilitation Agency) by Govt. of India.
The objective of the paper is to look into the objectives of setting up MUDRA Scheme and trace out how it has made an impact among the MSME sector in answering to the questions of access and availability of credit to the sector. To get an insight of the study, field level implementation of MUDRA Scheme in certain districts of Kerala has been taken. Primary data has been collected from credit institutions participating in the scheme. Literature review has been resorted gather the significance of the scheme with particular focus to the development of the sector.
The study is significant to reiterate the advocacy of such innovative schemes for the promotion of the sector so that small entrepreneurs get relieved from their problem of access to finance.