This study explored school culture and teachers’ perspectives on Special Education Needs (SEN) and disabilities in relation to the inclusiveness of education within Guyana’s mainstream elementary school system.
It was concluded that Guyanese mainstream elementary teachers have basic general knowledge of the theories and principles of being inclusive and promoting inclusive education. However, they lack training in the area of SEN. They are either unaware or uncertain of whether they have learners in their classes who have SEN that are not physical disabilities or known learning disabilities. Secondly, teachers are biased against teaching learners with SEN because they feel unsupported. They associate learners with SEN with challenging behaviours low cognitive ability and underachievement.
Finally, the study proved that there is a direct relationship between school culture and teachers' perspectives on SEN and disabilities. This is directly related to the inclusiveness of education within Guyana’s mainstream elementary schooling system.
A successful listening comprehension integrates linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge which provide the foundation of L2 listening comprehension.This study reviewed one of the factors of successful L2 listening comprehension because a minimum level of word recognition is compulsory before non-linguistic knowledge. Linguistic knowledge through bottomup processes is an essential aspectto obtain the accurate the incoming input. The ability to recognize phonological features and frequency words becomes the bases of understanding L2 listening content and essentially which contribute to L2 listening proficiency. word recognition from speech as a new construct of vocabulary brings a vital role in a listener’s ability to combine both non-linguistic and linguistic knowledge while processing spoken language. Therefore, it is possible to be valuable targets for tests to predict a listener’s ability to deal with L2 listening comprehension tasks. Some studies revealed that word recognition in the 3000 frequent word families is the most predictive and provide a unique contribution to standardized L2 listening test in ESP contest. This study found the lack of empirical data about research on WRS in L2 listening comprehension. Thus, investigating the correlation between WRS and L2 listening comprehension constructed by researcher based on the learners’ listening need in EAP context can be further investigated and the other factors are potentially involved.