A review was made to highlight various research works done so far regarding to the introduction, distribution and managements of fall army worm in Africa. It has been reported that the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is an economically important pest native to tropical and subtropical America has recently invaded Africa there by causing substantial damage to maize and other crops. Accordingly, signals increased negative impacts on agricultural production and food security on the continent. Reports also suggested that this pest has already moved to at least 30 African countries. It was first detected in Central and Western Africa in early 2016 (Sao Tome and Principe, Nigeria, Benin and Togo) and from there proceeded further. Currently, in Africa the pest is causing huge damage to maize crop and has been estimated to 25-67% for maize in many countries. African continent provides favorable climatic conditions for a constant reproduction of the pest, which is expected to result in severe damage to high priority crops. Various control methods, including cultural, chemical and mechanical have been adopted and practiced by farmers in many African countries. Large-scale eradication efforts are neither appropriate nor feasible. Thus, in near future gathering and analyzing experiences and best practices from other countries where the pest is native will help to design and test a sustainable fall armyworm management program for smallholders in Africa. Furthermore, in order to reduce negative impacts associated with inappropriate usage of insecticide, emphasize should be given to develop or adopt the management practices which is environmentally safe.
Forty growing male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits at 7 weeks of age with average live body weight of 772±8 g were used in a complete randomized design of four treatments (10 in each) for 12 weeks feeding period. Rabbits in the 1st group were fed Commercial Rabbit Diet (CRD) without supplement (control, T1). While, in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups, diets contained 5.48, 10.97 and 16.45% Moringa oleifera Dry Leaves (MDL) to replace of 10, 20 and 30% of the protein content of CRD for T2, T3 and T4, respectively.
The contents of CP and EE were higher, but NFE content was lower in MDL in compared with CRD. The contents of DM, OM, CF and ash were similar among treatments. The digestibilities of OM, CP, EE and NFE and the contents of TDN, DCP and DE increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing levels of MDL. Dry matter content of the cecal digesta was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T4 (30% MDL) than T1 (control), however, cecal pH value revealed inverse trend. The concentrations of TVFAs and NH3-N in cecal digesta increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing levels of MDL in diets. The concentrations of total protein, albumin and globulin increased significantly (P<0.05), however cholesterol concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing levels of MDL. The intake of total DM and CP decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing levels of MDL. Average daily intake of TDN, DCP and DE were significantly highest (P<0.05) in T1 and T2. Final body weight, total and daily weight gain and growth performance index (GPI) increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing levels of MDL. The amounts of DM, TDN, CP, DCP and DE required for producing one kg weight gain decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing levels of MDL. Total feed cost and price of total weight gain increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing MDL. Feed cost per kg gain was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T4 compared to T1. Slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage increased significantly (P<0.05). Abdominal fat weight and the contents of ether extract and ash decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing the level of MDL supplementation compared with control