The economic and financial global crises have accelerated the search for alternative business models. The aim of this article is to describe the main characteristics of smart companies, which are able to overcome the shortcomings of the current economic system. After conducting a theoretical review of the main studies related to this area, we concludethat there is a need for smart companies championed by leaders who promote the use of information technologies and communication as means of improving citizensâ€™ quality of life. Society requires companies and costumers to act in the free market in a fair, ethical, caring and responsible manner, as economic growth must be made compatible with the distribution of wealth.
The purpose of this article is to highlight both costs and expenditures as economic indicators with which we can quantify the preparation of the decision-making process at the level of general management in an economic entity, but also the theory of systems because any economic agent itself represents a system and all consumption Of goods or services spent inside or outside the system can be considered sacrifices that the economic agent undertakes in order to obtain better results and see the possibility in which it can be used in the lighting equipment industry.
The article analyses the concept of cost, expense and costing systems based on the literature, from the moment of the presentation of the management accounting to the present.
The careful examination of the specialized literature shows that the specialized papers refer to the role and objectives of the management accounting according to the internal requirements of the economic entities, without being able to give an exact definition: unitary and acknowledged.
In order to correlate the literature with the accounting results I chose to exemplify the implementation of the costing system in the electric lighting industry, within the economic entity of Electromax S.R.L. The accounting system that applies to economic entities depends on the objectives they set and the information management requirement. In the practice of economic entities, there are two accounting systems, namely: an integrated accounting system and a non-integrated, self-contained accounting system. The organization of a cost accounting system is closely linked to financial accounting, providing information on expenditure and revenue. In fact, there is the question of reporting internal flows that allow costs and results to emerge.
For economic entities in the lighting equipment industry, the cost accounting autonomy compared to financial accounting generally implies reconciliation in the results of the two accounts because each accounting calculates a result. In principle, the two results are not equal, but in reality they must be equal.
Nowadays, the business in the world is becoming more and more flat, not only in the economic field but also in the fields of culture, society, politics and security, defense... Besides, the technology factor is more and more unexpected, especially information technology, energy, automation, 3D technology, biotechnology, green technology, marketing technology and management technology. They are very new in the direction of increasingly personalized and systematized. Start-up wants to knownew standards of consumption such as smart, green, clean, new, exciting, creative and convenient to use. Startup also needs to know the market to sell what they have. The objective of the study is to find out the key factors affecting a successful startup in Vietnam. The study results showed that there were 200 managers of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) who are the start-up their owner enterprises in Vietnam interviewed and answered about 13 questions. Data collected from April 2017 to November 2017 for managers of SMEs. The paper had been analyzed KMO test, Cronbach's Alpha and the result of KMO analysis which used for multiple regression analysis. Managersâ€™ responses measured through an adapted questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale (Conventions: 1: Completely disagree, 2: Disagree, 3: Normal; 4: Agree; 5: completely agree). Hard copy and online questionnaire distributed among 100.000 managers in Vietnam. The research result showed that three essential factors contributing to a successful startup in Vietnam with significance level 5 percent. The research results processed from SPSS 20.0 software.
The aim of this study to examine the correlations between teachersâ€™ skills, attitude and training environment for accountants satisfaction. We try and understand the factors which influence accountants satisfaction in a short time training as well as the consequences of it. Accountants will often choose their specific academic department based on its needs. We collected and analyzed data from descriptive research can help understand the factors on accountants satisfaction. The data were collected from 63 participants who study in the first courses and 73 participants who study in the third courses for short time training. This study discussed the effects of above mentioned results, the implications for theory and practice along with the limitations of the research and the implications for further research. Our study is significant in considering both theoretical and practical issues and for practices in the Mongolian training sector. Data were estimated by SPSS 21 and Smart PLS 3.0 statistic programs.
Dividends are an important part of a stockâ€™s total return. In a recent study, Cloutier and Xu (1) developed a high dividend/low beta strategy by exploiting documented market anomalies. However, because the strategy includes â€œsin stocks,â€ for some investors, the opportunity to invest in the strategy is not an option. In this paper, we advance that original research and present an option that combines high dividend yielding stocks with low beta stocks while excluding sin stocks. For the entire study period, from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2016, this strategy option provided higher yield, better returns, and lower systematic risk than the S&P 500. In addition, this no sin stock strategyâ€™s returns were statistically the same as the original high dividend/low beta strategyâ€™s returns.
Key words: No-sinâ€“stock trading strategyâ€“high dividendâ€“low betaâ€“Sharpe Ratioâ€“ Treynor ratio